The ranch was one of the most popular methods of agriculture, widely spread in the countries of the Western Hemisphere during the colonization of America by immigrants from the European continent.
In the USA and Canada, a ranch usually means any farm located in a rural area. One way or another, the main economic specialization of the ranch is cattle breeding, first of all cattle. This ranch is different from plantations, the main specialization of which is crop (bananas, sugar cane, cotton).
When free time was given out on the ranches of cowboys, they entertained themselves with all sorts of “funny” competitions: whose horse works better with a cow, who sits longer on a wild bull or a mustang, who will quickly lash a cow. Over time, these sports were separated, gained established rules, overgrown with traditions and features of training the horse and rider. From the middle of the 20th century, official cowboy competitions were held in the USA, and western sport appeared.
Life on the ranch has its advantages – far from the bustle of the city, animals and complete unity with nature.
Once a year, the rancher and his team lead their flocks to mountain pastures. Shepherd dogs grazing during a long transition of cows and bulls (bottom right), everything is as it should be.
Dangerous moment – the transfer of the herd across the road. One of the cowboys holds a warning yellow flag for approaching cars. Sometimes it’s easier to walk along the highway.
Such is the life of the real ranch and the cowboys.Read More
Features of the organization of independent gastronomic tours
Italy is a diverse country, where each region has its own unique features and unique character. This applies to both nature and culture, manifesting itself in a variety of forms. Cooking here on top. Gastronomic habits and traditions in different parts of Italy are very variable: it is often enough to travel several tens of kilometers to get from one culinary world to another. For example, Venetian cuisine is not at all the same as the cuisine of the mainland Veneto, and the culinary traditions of Bologna are markedly different from the Florentine tastes. There is nothing to say about the differences between Lombardy and, say, Campania, Lazio and Apulia, Sicily and Sardinia. All of them are not so similar to each other, that it is time to ask a question, and is it not about different countries? Therefore, it is amusing to read on all sorts of tourist portals and in countless blogs that, say, such and such a city is the gastronomic or culinary capital of Italy. There are at least two dozen such capitals in Italy (by the number of regions), and in each case we will have sufficiently weighty reasons to justify the capital.
In general, the soil for culinary and gastronomic tourism in Italy is very rich, and therefore it is not at all surprising that gastronomic tours in Italy are very popular among travelers from all over the world. In Russia, the corresponding programs are offered by a number of travel companies (interesting tours can be found, in particular, from Simpletravel; see here). It is only necessary to take into account that the pleasure is, as a rule, not cheap. However, if you are not very well oriented in the field of cooking or do not burn with the desire to think through every little thing, then a gastronomic tour organized by professionals is perhaps the ideal option.
However, here we are more interested in the possibilities of organizing independent travels. Let’s talk about this in more detail.
How to organize a gastronomic tour of Italy alone
In general, organizing an independent journey in Italy is quite simple. Buy air and railway tickets, book hotels, get a visa – is a simple matter. The most difficult thing in the case of gastroturas, in our opinion, is to draw up a travel program. What and where to try, what places (restaurants, wineries, agricultural enterprises, etc.) to visit, when it is better to go to one or another region of Italy to fully appreciate the advantages of local cuisine – these and many other questions will require you to be careful preparation.
However, here, for lack of time or desire to search for all the necessary information on your own, again, you can resort to outside help. To this end, it makes sense to look at sites like www.tripster.ru, where, among other things, there are excursions of a gastronomic orientation. For example, here you can find a good selection of culinary and gastronomic excursions in Rome and its environs, here is a tempting tour of Venice and its hidden back streets, and here is an interesting one-day tour of Apulia. Similar tours and walks can be booked in Florence, Naples, Verona, Turin and many other Italian cities.
But you can do otherwise. If you are interested in cooking as such, then surely you have at least some idea of what attracts your attention. From this and push off. When planning a trip, refer to the tourist forums, blogs and reviews of tourists, the benefit is that in the case of Italy there is no shortage of information. As a result, you can make an approximate list of dishes, wines and products that you definitely need to try in a particular region. And then go to the free swimming – travel around the country, wander through the cities, alternating sessions of contemplation of the beautiful with a visit to the points of the public catering that you like along the way, and try, try, try. With this approach, of course, not only gastronomic discoveries, but also disappointments await you. But, comparing what and how they cook in different establishments, you can form your own idea of Italian cuisine and its regional specialties. In the end, nothing is more valuable than personal experience. At the same time, it is not at all necessary to ignore the experience of other people. No one has canceled Google Maps and Tripadvisor – on these resources there are a lot of reviews about various institutions in all of the more or less noticeable cities in Italy. And, of course, before going to a particular restaurant, pizzeria, trattoria, etc., it is worth a while to read what is written about them.
In addition, do not forget about the existence of books and travel guides. Of them, too, can draw a lot of useful information. In Russian there is, for example, the book by Elena Kostyukovich “Food. Italian happiness “, which can be used as a gastronomic guide to Italy. (Essentially the same book, only in a slightly different layout, was previously published in two parts – “A Taste of Italian Happiness” and “Roads of Italian Happiness.”) There is a book by Andrei Bilzho “My Venice” – again, almost ready-made guidebook institutions of Venice. There is another literature.
Finally, you can focus on numerous gastronomic fairs and festivals. For example:
- Florence Pitti Taste fair is held annually (in March);
- in Perugia – Eurochocolate fair (in October);
- in Alba – the Tartufo Bianco d’Alba fair dedicated to white truffle (October-November);
- in Ladispoli, near Rome, – Sagra del Carciofo Romanesco in honor of the artichokes (in late March – early April);
- in Montefiascone, also near Rome, – the wine festival Fiera del Vino (in early August) …
The list can be continued indefinitely. By and large, any cultural event in Italy, be it a city carnival or a celebration in honor of some saint, is accompanied by a fair of traditional local products: somewhere there is more, somewhere less, but it is always interesting and tasty.
We should also mention the organization Slow Food (see www.slowfood.com) and, in particular, the annual gastronomic feast Terra Madre Salone del Gusto held in Turin (in September). The organization’s website regularly publishes information about other events.
Also pay attention to the network of Eataly gastronomic centers (see www.eataly.net), conceptually combining a market where you can buy high-quality Italian products (cheeses, cold meats, seafood, etc., etc.), and a restaurant where you can taste dishes made from these highest quality products (which is remarkable, prices are not exorbitant). The geography of their presence is extensive and has long gone beyond the Apennine Peninsula. If we talk about Italy, the offices of Eataly are represented in the same Turin, as well as in Milan, Bologna (here in November 2017 a huge agro-gastronomic park FICO was opened – see www.eatalyworld.it), Florence, Rome, Bari and some other cities.Read More
In recent years, more and more residents of stone megalopolises tend to go to nature, to relax from the hustle and bustle. In Italy, there is a great way to accomplish this task – to go to the countryside on an agricultural farm. This type of recreation is called agritourism, and it is in Italy that it is extremely popular, there are a huge number of available farms in each region.
According to the legislation, this kind of recreation has existed since the mid 70s, and special conditions are even prescribed in the laws. According to these conditions, farmers are obliged to accept tourists. Initially, everything was very strict with this: the farmer undertook to prepare food, at least 50% consisting of products grown on his farm, to conduct tastings of his own or local wines, to organize sports and didactic activities for children (teach them to milk cows, etc. ., that is, to live a full farm life). There are also certain requirements for guest accommodation, which must be as authentic as possible.
Now the concept has changed a bit, and along with the growing demand for this type of recreation, more and more “quasi-agritourism” began to appear, with swimming pools, spa areas, massages and other things. They feed there as in a restaurant (thawed food), but the air is basically the same. The real life in agro-tourism is quite simple: stone modestly furnished houses, wooden tables in the dining room and its own, cooked food by the owners.
If you want to do agritourism, you must live on a real farm, in an authentic place.
Agritourism is not necessarily all located in the mountains, but often. Firstly, there is cheaper and more suitable for agricultural needs the land, and secondly, it is easier to embody the idea of privacy. In general, there are no agritourism right on the beach, of course. But in compensation you can enjoy the beautiful and spectacular views of the mountains.
In addition to world-famous attractions, beautiful beaches and traditional cuisine, Italy is also famous for agritourism. In the cultivation of this type of recreation, Italy, along with France and Spain, is considered one of the recognized world leaders. And what other visiting format will allow to penetrate the Italian way of life and traditions better than a holiday in the countryside?
Throughout the year, over 10,000 Italian villas, farms and estates are ready to host agrotourists. Here you can ride horses, stroll through the fragrant flower fields, visit the vineyards and, of course, enjoy plenty of gastronomic delights.
The history of agrotourism in Italy
According to one of the local legends, a foreigner set up agrotourism in Italy, who went to live on an Italian farm in order to diversify his too calm and full life. The case was in the post-war period, when the Italian villages impoverished as a result of the Second World War were just beginning to “come to their senses”. The farmer who sheltered the eccentric foreigner was satisfied, having received a good reward for his labors. Stories about excellent rest, wonderful natural food and Italian hospitality quickly spread out of the country, and soon they began to travel to Italy not only for its rich architecture and history, but also to taste all the delights of the colorful village life.
Entrepreneurial Italians, seeing in this niche market, began to equip their homes and farms, to create all the conditions for a decent holiday visitors. By the 70s of the 20th century, agricols began to appear in the country — existing farms that, in addition to producing wine, olive oil and other products, provided rooms for tourists in their homes.
Since 1985, agritourism in Italy has received official recognition and government support. Some projects even provide special grants. In the countries of the European Union there is a decree, which clearly states the rules of doing business for farmers who want to provide their farms for agritourism. To get permission to engage in this type of business, Italian farmers are required to complete a special course, designed for a hundred hours. In the course of the training program, farmers acquire knowledge of the basics of law, management, accounting, sanitary and hygiene standards, etc.
Today, agritourism in Italy is an already formed market. Every year, about two million people come to farms and farmsteads, which gives a considerable profit to the country’s budget.
The most popular regions of Italy for agritourism
Agritourism in Tuscany
The first position in the list of the most popular regions for agro-tourism in Italy is rightfully occupied by Tuscany, where a quarter of the country’s agricultural chips are concentrated. Tuscany is a paradise for travelers. Her villages and small towns are saturated with the spirit of the Middle Ages.
In addition to the picturesque nature, olive groves and wine plantations, agrotourists have a great opportunity not only to taste the dishes for which Tuscany is famous, but also to learn how to cook them under the guidance of Tuscan hostesses.
In the Tuscan cuisine are widely used fish, flour and sausages, and, of course, a variety of vegetables. However, an essential element of Tuscan cuisine is olive oil, which is considered one of the best in the country, and also Florentine steak, which is made from bull meat marinated in olive oil with spices. In addition, Tuscany is also the land of winemakers. Therefore, agritourism in Tuscany without wine is simply unthinkable.
Agritourism in Trentino – South Tyrol
Together with Tuscany in popularity in agritourism there is another equally famous resort –Trentino (South Tyrol). The key to the popularity of this province is the fact that Trentino is one of the largest European centers of mountain and ski tourism with a well-developed infrastructure. Agritourism in Trentino is an explosive mixture of picturesque landscapes, mild climate, mountain “crystal air”, sights, wine and, of course, excellent Italian cuisine.
If you go to Trentino – be sure to try the local pizzocheri paste, made from buckwheat flour with potatoes and savoy cabbage, generously seasoned with cheeses and herbs. Beef tenderloin called tagliata, pickled in spices and grilled, and also dried bresaola beef (Italian bresaola), cut into transparent slices.
Agritourism in Piedmont
The region in the north of Italy has glorified the country for its gastronomic delights. In addition to fine wines, cheeses and other gastronomy, it is in Piedmont that the world famous white truffles grow. Agrotourists who decide to go to this region of Italy will have the opportunity to stay in the agrikols of the legendary “hunters” for delicious mushrooms. If you’re lucky, you can even take part in the search for truffles or visit the famous truffle festival. Fans of “mushroom hunting” should be headed to the province of Lange, where, near the town of Alba, these agro-tourist estates are located.
Agritourism in Piedmont is also a wine tour, since winemaking has a special place in Piedmont. It is Piedmont that is the birthplace of the famous Asti Slumante wine and the wonderful sparkling Prosseco. While serving local Barolo wine, in addition to bread, butter, vegetables and several types of sausages, the guest is sure to be treated with white truffles.
And Piedmont is one of the largest producers of cheese. Indeed, in addition to the recipe, in the production of Italian cheese, one of the key roles is played by the vegetation that feeds animals, and the climate in which cheese matures. Only in this region can you try the real cheeses of Castelmagno, Gongorzola, GranaPadano, Taleggio, Robiola, Bra and TomaPiemontese.
In addition, agri-tourism in Piedmont is an opportunity to swim in hot springs, which the region abounds in. The thermal spas of Piedmont such as the Terme di Acqui, Terme di Agliano and Terme di Bognanco are famous for their sources throughout Italy.Read More
In Israel, more than a dozen varieties of strawberries are produced. Among them are Hadass, Tamar, Yael, Malach, Tamir, Barrack and Sirota, synthesized at the Agricultural Institute “Volcani” in Rishon Lezion, Yuval and Orly from the company Fertiseeds, as well as shaked and mouths grown on the “Meshek Yosef” farm.
And from about January all this begins to fill with color and maturity. It’s time to pick berries. You can, of course, buy them in the nearest market, but it is much nicer and more fun to get the whole family out into nature and personally collect them from the garden. At the same time you can eat from the heart. Where can this be done?
“Bag on the farm” (“Farm on the hill”) in Gedera invites you to pick strawberries grown without chemicals. The berries are clean and healthy, sweet and tasty, grow, as it should be in the name of the farm, on the hill. In case of rain or inclement weather there are beds inside the greenhouse. As an additional entertainment: a living area and the opportunity to ride through the fields on the tractor. The entrance costs 30 shekels (children up to 3 years old are free), food on the spot without restrictions, and each basket to take away – for an additional 20 shekels.
Farm Agronen, also located in Göder, produces not only fresh strawberries, but also other berries. At the beginning of January, only strawberries and raspberries are available in small quantities. The peak of ripening, according to the owners, will come on the holiday of Shavuot (this year it is May 19-20). In April, the medlar (shesek) is promised, and in June-July – blackberries, mulberries and plums. Open until only on Saturdays, but opening hours promise to expand on Friday. Entrance – 30 shekels, container for strawberries for 20.
“Bags-6” not far from Netanya in moshav Geulim invites you to one of the oldest strawberry farms in Israel, founded in the 60s of the last century. Long green beds, stretching across a huge field, daily meet guests with lots of sweet ripe berries, irrigated with well water. It is advised to come by 9 am – there are a lot of people who want it and by noon it is already full sold out. Entry costs 20 shekels. Price basket – 15.
Tal Bag is located next to Hod Hasharon and is open to the general public only on Saturdays. Here they are proud of 5 strawberry varieties (Orli, Tamar, Malach, Barrack and 295) grown using biological control methods. Berries do not even need to wash before eating. The entrance for the child costs 40, including a takeaway basket, parents can choose the option without packaging for 20 shekels. Each additional basket with a capacity of about 400 grams will cost 20 shekels. Food on site without restrictions. You can also pick oranges and carrots on the farm, but in January only strawberries are available.
You can also pick strawberries grown without chemical spraying at the Ruach She-Tut farm, at the entrance to the kibbutz Gan-Shmuel just east of Hadera. To protect against pests here use ladybugs and special bees. It is curious that part of the strawberry does not grow on the ground, but in boxes. The entrance costs 45 shekels, including unlimited strawberry eating on the spot and a 250-gram basket with them. Open daily, but pre-registration is required at the weekend.
PullGezer Farm, located near Kfar Saba, offers not only strawberries. You can pick carrots, sweet potatoes, cherry tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, beets, radishes, parsley, dill, mint and much more from local patches. The entrance to the vegetable part of the farm – 25 shekels, the strawberry – 35. When combining both options – a discount of 10 shekels. For the purchase of a basket of strawberries, they ask for 20 shekels, and for every kilogram of vegetables – 5. Food on site without restrictions. Open daily.
Farm “Stalbetut”, spread out at Hod Hasharon, invites you to gather strawberries only on Saturdays. The farm uses biological plant protection without the use of pesticides; here you can listen to lectures on the cultivation of strawberries and the difference in varieties. The cost of entry, unlimited eating from the garden and a small bast-basket with them is 40 shekels. If you wish, if you come with a child, an adult can choose the option without a basket for 20 shekels.
In “Sacks-77” near Netivot, not far from Beersheba in the western Negev, strawberry picking is open exclusively on Fridays. It is said that the berries are big, red, juicy and tasty. Here the entrance with unlimited eating on the spot and a basket of 250 grams costs 15 shekels, with a basket per half a kilo is 25 and with a basket per kilogram is 40. For an additional 10 shekels, you can make a tour of the farm on a tractor.
The Sadot farm, located at the entrance to the kibbutz Mishmar Hasharon, just northeast of Netanya, offers guests a strawberry field with 4 varieties to choose from: tamar, rotem, shaked and malach. The entrance with unlimited absorption of berries on the spot costs 22 shekels, and for another 15 shekels you can carry with you a basket, which, according to rumors, includes about a kilogram. Also on site you can do collecting anemones.
The Uri Tutim farm, located in Yesha moshav in the Western Negev, between Beersheba and the Gaza Strip, invites all southerners to pick strawberries growing in greenhouses not on the ground, but at the level of human growth. Here, for growing berries, a special hanging strawberry method is used, which makes it possible to do without soil, reduces the number of pests and improves plant health. Admission is only 10 shekels, a container for collecting with you – 25. Open from 8 am to 2 pm on Fridays and Saturdays.
The farm “Here Gil” in Petahia moshav in the regional council Gezer (about which we wrote a little earlier) grows delicious cherry tomatoes in the summer, and in winter opens the season of picking strawberries grown in greenhouses by the hanging method without pesticides. Here, among other things, you will hear interesting stories from the owner of the farm about strawberries, about how to collect and choose the right one. Open on Fridays from 9:00 to 15:30. Entrance fee – 30 shekels. Picked berries are paid by weight.
The Ariel strawberry farm in the moshav of Kadima north of Kfar Saba is not satisfied with the general harvest of its berries and sells strawberries at 30 shekels per kilogram. However, according to the owners, in the very near future it is worth waiting for the announcement of the free collection of products. This place is considered one of the favorite among many residents of not only Gush Dan, but also in other parts of the country.
That’s probably all for now. The largest strawberry farm in Israel is “Yosef Bag” in Hod Hasharon, but, alas, it does not suit the “national harvest”, supplying all products to supermarkets and grocery stores in the country.
It should be added that it is desirable to come to each of the listed or any other places early and call in advance – you never know: rain, floods, a strike, a clean-up day, or all were destroyed by visitors yesterday. Published prices are valid at the beginning of January 2018 and may vary depending on the season.
AGRAITURISM! WHAT IS “ECO-REST”?
In Italy, some vacation spots in the name contain “Agriturismo”. Driving past private farmland, you can periodically find a similar sign. If you like to watch the sheep, feed and iron them; If you like to walk among the olives and lemon trees, then you should try agro-tourism!
Eco-vacation not far from civilization
The point is that you live in a villa, in an estate somewhere in a rural area or far from the center (in the mountains, for example), and communicate with nature – animals, beautiful views of olive groves, lemon gardens, maybe even a pool … highly dependent on location.
Also from the pros can be food that is prepared from products grown on the same farm. Fresh air, walks among the trees, the opportunity to stroke a donkey, ride a horse, drive geese and enjoy the newly born goats.
You can just chat with the hosts, learn to cook Italian dishes from them, or take part in other country activities (all by prior arrangement).
If we talk about Azienda Agrituristica Vivi Natura, then the prices there are ridiculous – a room for three with breakfast is 60 euros, parking is free. And, in general, in such places, cheaper than in the center. And, of course, such a stop brings diversity to the trip. On the way to Rome this time – just what was needed!
Be sure to read the reviews before booking. Now more and more people are resting in the estates, so there are enough reviews and more and more places are available.
What is caravanning and jailoo tourism? Where can you become a farmer for a week or a movie star for an hour? How can you fly free to Mars. Skyskaner tells about the adventures and unusual types of travel, infinitely far from packet tourism. Choose what is closer to you, or offer your options.
- Rural tourism
Rural tourism returns to the basics. Instead of an alarm clock – cocks, instead of a coffee machine in the office – a cow to be milked, and instead of rubber vegetables from the supermarket – fresh food straight from the garden. You can arrange a rural tour yourself, find a local guide or trust in agencies that specialize in agritourism. Some companies focus on individual regions, others organize adventures for every taste in all corners of the world.
In agriturismo.net they know everything about Tuscan farms for riding enthusiasts, and the American Agrotours is literally ready for everything: from “Take me to places where there are no skyscrapers and cars, I will disconnect the phone and look after the flowers” meat farms in Australia are arranged.” The slogan of the Indian Agri Tourism says: “To change, you need to go back to the roots.” And indeed, India is perhaps the best country in the world for those who want to return to the very roots. And in Israel, the Ministry of Agriculture is engaged in the development of agro-tourism, its website contains 16 ideas of adventure – from fishing to beekeeping.
- Jailoo tourism
From Kyrgyz “jailoo” is translated as “mountain pasture”. Jailoo-tourists travel to untouched corners of the planet – the mountains and steppes of Asia, the forests of Siberia and North America, the Amazon jungle and reserves of Africa – to forget for a while about the benefits of civilization. You can start from the homeland of this type of tourism – Kyrgyzstan, but do not choose extreme routes if you do not have experience hiking in the mountains. It is safer to find a local guide who takes you to the high mountain pastures between the Issyk-Kul and Son-Kul lakes on the right path. The best time to travel is from May to September, although warm clothes are useful there even in summer.
Jailoo-tourism can be combined with ethnic – stay overnight in a shepherd’s yurt in the Mongolian steppe, settle in a reed hut in a deaf Indonesian village, or stay with a good-natured tribe Dramrayg in northern Tanzania. The “family adopted” traveler lives the daily life of the indigenous population, follows local traditions and rituals and adopts skills such as grazing cattle, making pottery, or making fire not from a cigarette lighter.
The film tourists want to be the characters of their favorite movie for a while, and there are two ways. You can follow in the footsteps of Sherlock Holmes in the UK or rent a red Chevrolet Impala and ride in yellow glasses along the Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas heroes. And you can be right in the scenery of your favorite movie. For example, explore every corner of Tolkien’s Middle-earth in New Zealand, see the alien landscapes of Star Wars in the Tunisian Tatavin, Matmata and Towazar. And Woody Allen fans can arrange a whole “staircase tour” in Europe and sit first on the very staircase at the church of Saint-Etienne-du-Mont, where the hero of “Midnight in Paris” was transferred in the 1920s, and then on the Spanish Steps from “Roman Adventures”.
- Festival tourism
Music lovers practice another kind of tourism – festival. And in Europe for one vacation, you can visit several concerts at once. Many festivals go on for three days, so campgrounds and caravan sites are near the stage. Among the cult musical events are the Spanish Primavera (end of May – early June), the British Glastonbury (end of June) and the Hungarian Sziget in August. You can choose a festival like on the Festicket website.
To some extent, festival tourism includes trips to grand events like the Brazilian or Venetian carnivals, encerro in Pamplona, Oktoberfest or the Edinburgh festival Fringe.
- Gastronomic tourism
Cooking courses and ethnic restaurants are everywhere, but it is more interesting to get acquainted with the recipes of national cuisines in their homeland. Perhaps the point here is in the setting and perception, but whatever one may say, the masaman curry is tastier in Krabi and the khinkali in Kazbegi. Yes, and for the recipe for the right pizza, you should go to the south of Italy and try to ask the owners of family restaurants to arrange a master class (but you can’t do without basic Italian in this case).
Traveling in France is definitely worth diversifying with acquaintance with cheeses and wines. The “cheese” regions are considered the birthplace of Camembert Normandy and Burgundy, where Napoleon’s favorite cheese was created – the epuas. The perfect pair of soft aromatic cheeses will be wines of Burgundy, Bordeaux and Champagne. And to learn to understand tea, go to the Chinese province of Fujian, famous for its oolongs and red teas, the home of Puer Yunnan or trekking in Sichuan with its green and yellow teas.
- Ecological tourism
Adherents of this type of tourism are spiritually enriched by being alone with nature. As a rule, eco-tourists serve as a hut in a national reserve, and wild animals serve as neighbors. The goal is to contemplate from a safe distance and do no harm. There is even an international community of ecological tourists who want to benefit the environment during their holidays.
However, ecotourism can be very extreme. Take, for example, the so-called “shark tours”, when you are immersed in a special cage in the sea, where predators already carnivorously grin at all three rows of teeth – entertainment is not for the faint-hearted!
Caravans are called motor homes, and it is very convenient to be a homebody and a traveler at the same time. This way of organizing life came up with American immigrants in the 1930s. Moving from place to place, they carried with them folding furniture and household utensils in covered wagons. Gradually, special campsites for caravaners began to appear – such as small communes. And still in the USA and Europe there are a lot of those who are not ready to exchange the trailer for an ordinary apartment or house.
If you are easy going and have always dreamed of embarking on a car trip without stopping in hotels, this is what you need. This type of tourism is also good because it gives complete independence from the timetable of traffic, and with it you can take everything you need, including bicycles, surfboards or downhill skiing.
- Spiritual tourism
The purpose of spiritual tourism is not so much to change the situation as to change oneself. This is an ascetic kind of travel for those who want to find inner harmony and bring thoughts in order. Such tourists travel to countries with a mild climate – usually to India, Thailand or Indonesia – to practice yoga and spiritual practices in a peaceful atmosphere.
- Industrial tourism
Who in childhood did not climb into semi-burnt houses and empty construction sites? Urbex (from urban exploration), a type of tourism based on urban research, is called upon to resurrect those quivering feelings. Industrial tourists are digers who study the underground and underground utilities, roofers who walk on rooftops, and stalkers who penetrate abandoned objects, and not only industrial ones. For example, a stalker can go to the ghost town of Kadykchan in the Magadan region or to the prototype of Silent Hill – the town of Centreilia in Pennsylvania, where the underground fire has been burning for more than half a century.
Those who are interested in objects of religion that have lost their sacral significance also have their own tourist movement: postpalomniki find and explore forgotten temples. A separate subspecies of industrial tourism – nuclear. Atomic-era fans go to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, to the abandoned Pripyat and slowly begin to penetrate into the Fukushima prefecture.
- Gloomy tourism
It is also called “dark”, “black” or dark tourism. Meaning – traveling to places associated with death, destruction, mysticism and tragedy. “Dark tourists” get impressions, walking through the cemeteries and battlefields, they are attracted by all the sinister and supernatural.
Among the attractions of dark tourism are the former death camp in Auschwitz, 60 km from Krakow, the French ghost town of Oradour-sur-Glane, destroyed during World War II, the place of mass executions of Choeng Ek and other Death Fields in Cambodia. In the US, trips to Alcatraz prison where Al Capone sat are popular. And in Romania, “dark tourists” roam the ruins of the Poenari fortress: historians consider it, and not Bran, the real castle of Dracula.
- Backpacker Tourism
The purpose of backpacking is the most economical journey. You can identify a backpacker from a distance along the backpack behind your back (and often also on your chest) and the Lonely Planet guide in your hands. Backpackers ride by car or by public transport, and spend the night in hostels, tents or each other – there are special services for this, like kouchsurfing. In developed countries, traditional time is set aside for such tourism – the gap year, the “drop out year” between graduation and the beginning of a career. But to become a backpacker is never too late: a backpack by the shoulders – and more!
- Space tourism
In contrast to the backpacking of traveling into space – the most expensive form of tourism, it is just like cosmic money to match the name. The world’s first space tourist Dennis Tito in 2001 paid $ 20 million for a flight to the ISS. Now state monopolies on space are in the past, private companies are building their space centers and spacecraft, and some are already selling tickets for future suborbital flights. Virgin offers 2.5 hours in space for $ 250,000, XCOR Aerospace – for $ 95,000.
Another interesting initiative is the Mars One project, whose members can go to Mars for free without a return ticket to establish the first Martian settlement. The first crew of four will fly to Mars as early as 2024, then flights will become regular – once every two years.
Rural tourism is one of the directions of development of domestic and inbound tourism, it is a relatively new and promising direction. The development of tourism in rural areas is a socially important type of business that contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas: infrastructure development, improving the quality of life, increasing local incomes, creating jobs, maintaining and maintaining traditions and culture, and preserving the environment.
Today, there is no universal definition of this type of tourist activity, but the definition generally accepted in the world is approximately as follows: rural tourism (agrotourism) is a journey of citizens from a permanent place of residence to rural areas with accommodation in rural guest houses, rural estates and on farms with tourist goals and without engaging in activities related to generating income from sources at the place of temporary residence.
Rural tourism, as a vacation in rural areas, is not only a fad, but, one might say, a necessity – a dynamic and intense rhythm of life in cities, pollution of the urban environment, makes the city dweller want rest and solitude among the pure natural environment. Such a vacation gives a person the opportunity to get closer to nature, to relax, to gain strength, and in addition, it allows to satisfy such specific hobbies as the study of historical, cultural, ethnographic, as well as architectural heritage, customs and crafts characteristic of the region, acquaintance with the local folk clothing, cooking, collecting folklore, learning the local language or dialect, amateur photography, collecting herbs and minerals.
It should be noted that rural tourism can effectively develop and function not everywhere, but only in regions not covered by activities that pollute the environment in such areas as villages and hamlets; small towns with typical traditional architecture, way of life, culture; agricultural farms; forest estate; natural parks and specific protected areas; recreation areas and summer areas; natural phenomena; monasteries and sacred sites; sights of folk culture in the open.
Interest in rural tourism is ubiquitous in the world. A good example of the development of rural tourism can serve such countries as Italy, France, Holland and the UK. In these countries, tourist trips to the countryside already occupy the second place after a sea holiday (which cannot be said about Russia, where sea holidays are still the most preferable).
One of the reasons for the rapid development of rural tourism in Europe is the crisis in the agricultural sector. In the modern era, the process of productivity and automation of agriculture leads to a decrease in jobs. In fact, in many rural regions in Europe, agriculture has ceased to be the most important form of land use and the most important activity of the rural community. The share of communities operating in the agricultural sector in Greece is 30% of their total number, in Portugal – 24, in Spain and Ireland – 17, in Italy – 12, in Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK – from 2 to 7%. Consequently, it was necessary to find new activities that would replace or complement agricultural activities. The search for approaches to this task explains the heightened interest in rural tourism, which with rapid development can revive many rural regions. Statistical studies show that 35% of citizens in the EU prefer to leave in rural areas. In Holland, their share is particularly high – 49%. Rural tourism creates new jobs and brings real income to the regions – Italy in Europe ranks first in rural tourism, with an average profit of $ 350 million. Rural tourism also makes it possible to find means and means to conserve nature. In many countries, the development of this type of tourism has become the main focus of the protection and recreation of national rural landscapes – this is how the beautiful alpine meadows of Switzerland, the mills and canals of the Netherlands, the old parks and villas of Italy were saved. Today, using the example of Italy, the EU sees in agritourism a way of saving agriculture in the countries of Western Europe. They are written about in the media: “Rural tourism is now a top model. The people enjoy with might and main, and not only for the summer, but also for Christmas, Easter, etc. The old houses are being converted just for such holidaymakers. Pampered tourists are ready to accept any conditions .”
The growing popularity of rural tourism has led many English farmers to organize themselves in order to offer more diverse services in their homes. Rural tourism in England is becoming more attractive also because it offers extremely affordable prices and special discounts for children. In the south-west of England, old farmhouses are being restored for tourist purposes, they are luxuriously equipped, with heating, household appliances, televisions and partly preserved old furnishings, and they enjoy great success with tourists. In Ireland, rural estates are subject to mandatory certification and receive “stars” as hotels, the walls of their houses are decorated with the appropriate number of green leaves. Find “green housing” help special indexes, directories, catalogs.
In Hungary, a host who takes a rest, incomes from 10 beds are not taxed; in Romania, the question of exempting such owners from taxes for 15 years is being considered; in Austria, the peasants who are engaged in the reception of guests, have tax privileges for the past 40 years; Poland does not tax income from providing tourists with a maximum of 5 rooms for accommodation and meals.
In Germany in the early 1980s. The concept of a tourism mechanism in peripheral regions was developed. Its main goal is to offer cheap outdoor recreation in the tourist market, without using expensive infrastructure and providing comfortable living conditions.
In Italy, there is growing interest in staying in monasteries or monasteries or Pestalnitsky monasteries, near which there are special hotels. Illustrative example of a monastery near Siena, where the hotel is served by Augustinian nuns. The daily routine of tourists is associated with the sun: tourists get up at dawn, go to the morning service, work in the monastery garden. Life flows slowly, calmly, in a rural way.
The success of France in supplying a specific product such as recreation in the countryside — of the 37 million foreign tourists who visit the country every year — about 7 million are indisputable. give priority to just relaxing in the village.
Rural tourism is one of the important directions in the development of the village, because it is an alternative to its industrialization and a means of keeping the population in industrially underdeveloped regions. In the West, two types of rural green tourism have emerged – “mixed” and “pure”. The first is based on peasant (farm) farms that grow livestock and vegetables and additionally receive tourists. This gives approximately 25% of the profits to the farming family. Moreover, most of these funds are reinvested in home improvement, interior renovation, creating conditions for guests. The second is exclusively the activity of serving tourists, providing them with hotel services in houses that serve as mini-hotels.
It should also be noted that, from a functional point of view, rural tourism is closely related to other types of tourism, primarily recreational, cultural, specialized types of tourism – skiing, hunting, fishing, religious, etc. All this allows rural tourism to be included in the combined tours that multiplies the demand for a traditional tourist product.
The main factors behind the success of agro-tourism in Europe are the political support of agro-tourism from national states and the European Union, since agrotourism was initially viewed as a social cushion in restructuring the agrarian sector of the economy, allowing for the creation of new jobs in rural areas. In a number of countries, there are special agrotourism laws, which greatly contributed to the development of this sector of the tourism industry, or special state programs to support agro-tourism and the organization of this type of activity are being implemented.
In Europe, at the international level, common, internationally recognized approaches to quality standards and special guidance guidelines for the classification and standardization of accommodation facilities and services in the field of agro-tourism (rural tourism) are being developed. Moreover, this work is carried out not within the framework of state or supranational agencies (national ministries or EU directorates), but within the framework of EU international programs with the most active participation of associations of agro-tourism actors (eg EUROGITES European Federation of Farm and Rural Tourism, ECEAT). agritourism, etc.)
Another important factor in the successful development of the agro-tourism sector was the fact that the agro-tourism product met the demands of a new consumer with average incomes, which constitutes the largest segment of effective demand. In addition, it should be noted that the microeconomic model of agritourism has been very effective. Compared to other sectors of the tourism industry, the production of tourist products looks extremely low-cost, which means that agritourism could compete in terms of price-quality ratio with other tourist products. With regard to the prospects for the development of rural tourism, according to expert estimates, the average indicator of the potential is 55.8%. Such a high figure shows that more than half of the country’s landscape-geographical and climatic resources can be used to develop various tourist destinations taking into account the needs of tourists (for comparison, Turkey has a tourist potential of 38.4, Greece – 35, Italy – 49, France, Spain and Germany – slightly more than 50%). Thus, Russia is a very promising country for the integrated development of tourism.
Today, “rural tourism” in Russia is the recreation of citizens in rural areas in guest houses (“mini-hotels”) created by a rural family on the basis of their own residential house and garden. Since the mid-90s, this model has been implemented in many regions of Russia from the Kaliningrad region to Yakutia. The network of guest houses is developed in the Altai Territory and on Lake Baikal, in the Krasnodar Territory and in Karelia, in Yakutia, in the Kaliningrad, Moscow and Leningrad regions. In North Karelia, where there are a lot of forest lakes, rural type tourism is spread in small cottages for one family of 2 to 8 people. The houses are equipped with all the necessary adequately cost. Usually they consist of a living room and several bedrooms. The cottages have hot and cold water, a small kitchen equipped with necessary appliances. Most cottages have fireplaces, saunas. Tourists are provided with rental boats, fishing equipment, ski equipment. All this allows in quite comfortable conditions, but at the same time actively relax in nature.
Unfortunately, despite the real examples in the Russian Federation of organizing agro-tourism activities, it should be stated that there is practically no regulatory framework specifically governing agrotourism activities as such:
- In the existing federal regulatory legal acts regulating activities in the field of tourism, and federal program documents in the field of tourism, there is no mention of the concept of “agro-tourism” (rural tourism, “green” tourism, “eco-agritourism”, “farmer tourism” or other terms used in our country and international practice to refer to the type of tourism activity under consideration);
- Special federal legislation regulating agrotourism in the Russian Federation is not yet available;
- There are no standards and regulations applicable in the field of agro-tourism as a specific sector of the tourism industry and – at the same time – an additional (non-agricultural, non-productive, alternative) form of income for the rural population. It should be particularly emphasized that the standards and regulations in force in the Russian Federation in the field of hotel and recreational business cannot be mechanically transferred to the small family hotel business sector in the countryside due to the specifics of the latter;
- The mention of agro-tourism in the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of August 2, 2011 No. 644 “On the federal target program “Development of domestic and inbound tourism in the Russian Federation (2011–2018) ”as one of the supported types of non-agricultural activities in rural areas, unfortunately , has not yet received development in the form of a developed system of concepts and norms.
It is worth noting that the lack of a regulatory framework is not the only problem in the organization of rural tourism:
– insufficiently developed infrastructure or its complete absence in a number of rural areas;
– lack of awareness of rural residents about the possibilities of developing rural tourism;
– low resource security of villagers who want to organize rural tourism;
– a critical reduction in the number of able-bodied rural population;
– carriers of culture or at least its individual surviving elements (lack of jobs in the countryside, drunkenness, outflow of youth);
– lack of guarantees for the safety of tourists;
– lack of qualified personnel for the organization of rural tourism;
– lack of state non-commercial advertising;
– lack of cooperation between all participants in the development process;
– lack of a unified national program and financial support for the development of rural tourism.
To solve the existing problems, proceeding from the global practical experience, in our opinion, the following areas (models) attributable to eco-agrotourism could be promising in Russia.
- Creation of regional agrotourist networks through the development of small, family and individual businesses on the basis of existing tourist resources in rural areas: accommodation facilities (small family hotel facilities) and infrastructure (including various objects and types of business related to the provision of agrotourism). The organization of an efficiently operating network of private agrotourism farms in the territory of the region implies the creation of a system of state support at the center level or at least at the regional level.
- Recreation of the socio-cultural environment of the historical settlement – “historical village”, “national village”, nobility and merchant estates, monasteries, etc.
- Creation of large and medium-sized specialized agro-tourist facilities, aimed at receiving tourists and organizing their valuable rest, for example, cultural and historical complexes.
- Creation of state and private agricultural parks as large multifunctional tourist, exhibition, advertising and expositional, cultural, propaganda, research and production and similar complexes with accommodation facilities and appropriate infrastructure.
All of the above models could be implemented in the Russian Federation when a number of key conditions specific to each of them are fulfilled.
The system of these conditions and priority models should be designated by the national concept of agrotourism development in Russia. If 10-15 years ago, emphasis was placed on creating guest networks, and the state did not provide system support, there were no necessary conditions for the normal functioning of this type of business, now the interest of large investors is directed to other forms of agrotourism, primarily large privately owned agro-tourism facilities.
Such objects are cultural and historical theme parks, ethnocultural complexes, etc. The implementation of such projects has not only economic benefits, but is able to solve a number of pressing social problems. It is necessary to clearly realize that today’s generation no longer wants to associate itself with the Russian state, the concepts of people and state in our country are no longer identical, the concept of patriotism loses its meaning, young people break away from their culture, stretch to the culture of the West, lose interest in their own history. The current state of the village, to put it mildly, is pitiable. A part of the working-age population leaves their native places, the rest simply drink. Solving all of the above problems requires political support from the authorities – at least at the regional level, this, as the experience of the West shows, will be enough to launch a market mechanism in the agro-tourism sector – the construction of cultural and historical complexes can be a driving force in the development of rural tourism in the regions.
However, all these problems are certainly more literate, easier and more likely to be solved if there is political support from the center – the relevant state program (subprogram of agrotourism development as a “point of growth” of the Russian province), which implies the corresponding legal and financial support:
– The state concept of rural tourism development and the village support program;
– state system of preferential crediting or even subsidizing tourism facilities at the initial stage;
– government programs for improving the macro-infrastructure of tourism, financing the infrastructure of rural areas (primarily, roads, electricity and water supply, telephone, Internet);
– creation of a public or state association uniting rural tourism entities (functions: advising those who wish to engage in agrotourism on all issues; registration; organizing microcredit channels for agrotourist facilities; organizing primary information support — cartographic, etc.; organizing advertising and marketing activities in the agrotourism sector ; transfer of the tourism product into an information form; certification in perspective), financing of the programs of the required professional flax training (retraining);
– promotion of the tourist product to the market (formation of large-scale interactive databases on the basis of these associations, which in fact create an arbitrarily wide market for local tourist products in the information form), an active promotional campaign.
The development of rural tourism, the implementation of large-scale cultural projects will have a serious social and economic importance and a positive effect.
For the state:
– increase tax revenues;
– Improving the welfare of citizens providing services;
– improving the health of citizens using services;
– the revival of cultural traditions;
– the preservation of small settlements;
– improving the living conditions of the rural population;
– increase the income of rural residents;
– reduce the migration flow from the village to the city by creating additional jobs;
– stimulating the study of folk customs and rituals;
– revival and promotion of traditional values and lifestyle;
– development of folk crafts;
– preservation of the cultural and historical heritage of the territory;
– performance evaluation from the perspective of a host providing rural tourism services
– additional income;
– expansion of production;
– production development;
For residents of rural settlements:
– for a number of social groups, especially children, it becomes important to realize the historical and cultural significance of their own “small Motherland”, pride in its fame in the camp and in the world;
– solving the problem of employment of local residents, providing them with jobs, sharing the values of international culture, including through interpersonal communication;
– support of socially unprotected segments of the population; – improvement of the housing stock;
– expansion of sales of agricultural products;
– cultural development, familiarity with the history, traditions, religion, rituals, cuisine of the local population;
– the acquisition of skills, abilities in a particular area of activity;
– additional resting place;
– the diversity of nature;
– the possibility of improving health;
Based on the above, this activity should be considered as a strategic socio-economic and socio-political project to support the Russian village and the Russian province as a whole, requiring a political decision at the level of government and interdepartmental coordination, as well as a balanced approach in the selection of projects. It is necessary to approach not from the position of a rapidly changing fashion and from other tactical considerations, but taking into account historical, cultural, socio-cultural, ecological and other aspects unique to the territory, which as a result builds the most economically promising strategic line in tourism. Making decisions for the sake of illiterate investors is fraught with the destruction of the historically established socio-cultural environment, such strategically valuable factors in the formation of a tourist product, such as landscape, historical-architectural environment, etc.Read More
Farm tourism, agro-tourism are different names for one type of activity that is directly related to agriculture and began to develop in the 1960s. in France (in the 1980s he experienced a real boom; now there are about 1 million agrotourists who go to farms). Farm tourism and agro-tourism are included in such a broader concept as rural tourism. According to S. Medlik’s dictionary, “rural tourism is a type of tourism for recreation concentrated on rural territories”. Agritourism is also tourism for recreation, but involves active use of the farm and is implemented in 2 forms – in the form of rental of premises with the services of tourists within the farm or accommodation with self-service in the territory, which is the property of the farm.
Agro-tourism is gaining more and more solid positions in Russia, although it is not yet necessary to say that it is the main source of income for the farmer. The effect is that farms in rural areas have been collective for a long time, therefore the base for such activities is still rather weak. Nevertheless, agrotourism has good prospects and gradually spreads wider; in particular, we can name the regions in which it is actively developing, for example, the Leningrad, Penza, Tver, Moscow regions, Buryatia, the Republic of Mari El, the Krasnodar Territory, Karelia, and others.
Agrotourism faces a number of tasks, and above all – attracting tourists during not only the summer period, but also at other times of the year, which will ensure the permanent employment of the rural population, the development of small business in the countryside and the stimulation of the business activity of rural residents. To this can be added the maintenance of local attractions in proper condition (after all, local budgets will be replenished), raising the cultural level of the population, supporting local folk crafts, preserving traditions, nature monuments, etc. Here agro-tourism has something in common with ecological (or green) tourism.
Tourists usually prefer summer time and purchase tours for 5-10 days (but so-called weekend tours may also be offered). However, popularity and winter agritourism, which has its advantages, is gradually increasing; for example, participation in the winter holidays, walking on snowmobiles, skiing and sledding and other things can only be offered at this time of year.
Agritourism involves the creation of such living conditions for tourists, which would be as close as possible to real rural life (tourists must be placed in rural areas or small towns that do not have industrial and multi-storey buildings). This is a traditional rural house with all its simple furniture, kitchen utensils, and sometimes even clothes. Tourists can stay at a farmer’s house or have a specially equipped room for them. If in the hotel business there are strict regulations and certain standards that the hotel must meet, then there is no such thing in agritourism, therefore the farmer and his family members (if farming is a family business, however, this happens most often) suits everyone according to their tastes and financial means. But agritourism is not an ordinary house rental in the village for the summer. The farmer undertakes to provide tourists with accommodation, food and entertainment, including excursions, folk holidays, acquaintance with local attractions, hiking in the forest for mushrooms and berries, hunting, fishing, recreational activities (bathhouse, herbal medicine, etc.), walking and horseback riding.
As for food, it is dominated by the usual dishes of rustic cuisine (borscht, cereal, etc.); In addition, tourists are given the opportunity to independently prepare food from the products that they themselves will produce, milking a cow, going for eggs to a chicken coop or for vegetables in the garden. At the same time, life on the farm goes on as usual: cattle graze, bees collect nectar, chickens carry eggs, etc. A tourist plunges into this daily routine, can work on a tractor, mow grass, weave a basket …
In Europe, this is especially appreciated, so parents often arrange farm holidays so that their children know how to produce cottage cheese, cheese, butter, how to grow potatoes and collect fruits. For example, in Spain, agrotourists collect olives, in Italy they help in the cultivation of citrus fruits, in France they master cheese and winemaking, and, not least, they pay for it! (Agritourism brings Italy $ 350 million a year).
For the most part of Russian citizens, agritourism is a kind of exotic (although, if you remember our summer seasons …), in pursuit of which, however, you do not need to issue visas and international passports. For some, this is an opportunity to remember their childhood, to relax in the quietness of a village house from problems; for others, to feel the ancient spirit of a hunter and fisherman, a shepherd and a gatherer. In any case, agritourism is a full-fledged, healthy holiday for tourists; strengthening the financial position for a farmer who does not change his production profile and continues to grow grain or feed cattle.
What is the contingent of agrotourists? There is a category of city dwellers who have no connections with the village, preferring to rest in Turkey or Egypt. But will it not happen that their children grow up in the belief that the rolls grow on the trees? These people, in addition to foreigners, can be involved in the sphere of agro-tourism; Moreover, in our country there are many decent places, such as Baikal, Altai Krai, etc.
Thus, on the one hand, thanks to agrotourism, urban residents can get an idea of life in the countryside, on the other – agritourism for the farmer is an additional source of income. It is estimated that for the season the farmer is able to receive from 1 bed the same profit, which gives 1 cow. If we consider agrotourism from a state point of view, then this is a way to improve the well-being of rural residents, provide young people with work, support the village in general, develop small business and infrastructure, including roads, transport links, communications, etc.
If the farmer decides to engage in agro-tourism, he will have to formalize this activity legally, that is, register, obtain a license, ensure compliance with fire, sanitary, environmental standards, and labor protection. If necessary, restructuring, refurbishment or construction of premises for tourists will require coordination with the local administration. The farmer needs to be prepared for the fact that all this can be a serious obstacle to the implementation of such activities.
But the absence of large expenses and, albeit not too large, but a stable income (there is evidence that in European countries profits from agro-tourism make up from 10 to 20% of the total income of the tourism industry, that 35% of the European population prefer this type of holiday) that will help develop this very promising business, especially since this niche is still free.
What can a farmer do in agritourism? The range of possible activities is quite wide, but, of course, will require investments. For example, a farmer is able to equip a sports ground on his plot (minigolf is now very popular); develop routes for hiking, horseback, bicycle or boat trips; organize games (paintball is only one of them); provide a cultural and ethnic program; to conduct excursions as part of its own agricultural production and crafts, so that tourists can see how animals are raised, wicker furniture, wooden utensils are made, feather scarves are knitted, etc .; Both domestic and foreign tourists will be interested to get acquainted with the national traditions, holidays, culture.
We give only one example of the possible organization of agritourism, for example, on a farm specializing in growing ostriches. The program of stay of tourists includes a mandatory visit to an ostrich farm; Usually the host himself conducts the tour, who talks about the maintenance and breeding of these exotic birds, sometimes allows them to feed, and the carrots will have to be cut on their own. A walk around the farm, inspection of bird enclosures ends with an invitation to dinner, the menu of which includes dishes from ostrich meat and eggs.
As a rule, farmers are not limited to breeding ostriches and contain other animals, ranging from donkeys on which you can ride, and ending with ordinary cows, which extreme lovers can milk.
Thus, tourists are offered to communicate with animals, natural food – and all this against the backdrop of rural color. But that’s not all. Souvenirs, photographs, various farm products are another item of income.
The success of the enterprise to a large extent depends on the state of both the farm itself and directly from the estate where tourists are supposed to be placed. Since the development of the territory is associated with costs, agrotourism appears to be the next stage after the organization of the farm itself, which makes it possible to invest the profit profitably. Therefore, allow yourself some tips.
- The manor should have an attractive appearance, which includes small architectural forms, such as sheds, pergolas, arbors, beautifully designed fencing, which organizes the territory and helps to make the overall impression of the manor positive.
- Of course, the overall layout is determined by the size of the estate, the principles of the overall architecture prevailing in the area, the nature of the farmstead. But the manor itself should not be a jumble of various buildings, it must be zoned to the economic territory and recreational zone. If the first must house rooms for livestock and poultry, aviaries, forages, etc., then the second is a place for sports and children’s (pay attention to the fact that it should be viewed from home) playgrounds, recreation areas. Both territories should have separate approaches and entrances, be equipped with paths. The presence of green space is necessary, because it not only improves the territory, but also creates a mood.
- The house should also be designed accordingly and have separate rooms for rest, cooking and eating, entertainment, etc. The design of the premises can be made in different styles, but the country seems to be the most appropriate when it is necessary to use objects of folk art in the interior. (embroidered towels, homespun tracks, etc.). But all this does not exclude modern items that create comfort.
- The latter concerns the lighting of the territory, the entrance to the house, which directly constitutes the degree of their safety. The possibilities offered by modern landscape design are considerable.
Rural tourism (it is also called “green” tourism or agritourism) is a relatively new phenomenon in the domestic tourism industry. Although in other countries such an unusual kind of recreation has long been very popular, especially among the inhabitants of big cities: 35-40% of Europeans prefer to relax not in famous resorts, but in rural areas.
The leaders in the agro-tourism business are the Czech Republic, the United Kingdom and Hungary. With the assistance of the Council of Europe, the European Federation for the Development of Rural Tourism (European Federation of Village and Farm Tourism) was founded, which includes 24 countries. In Europe, the organization of agrotourism brings a stable and growing income. In the countries of the European Union, it makes up, approximately, 20-25% of the total income of the tourism industry. Every year this figure increases by several percent.
A portrait of the target audience for this type of service looks like this:
- 65% of women and 35% of men;
- families with, on average, two children;
- people who lead an active sports lifestyle who want to be closer to nature and open to everything new;
- 37% of rural tourists are people between the ages of 35 and 49, the rest are young people between the ages of 20 and 35 who dream of a village romance, and the older generation who want to rest from the hustle and bustle of the big city.
- high-income families living in large cities, and married couples of retirement age.
In our country, rural tourism is just beginning to gain popularity, so competition in this segment is currently almost non-existent. Tours are mainly organized in the Krasnodar Territory, Altai, Karelia, Leningrad, Pskov, Yaroslavl, Ryazan and Kaliningrad regions. Nevertheless, experts predict a rapid growth in demand for such services in all regions of Russia over the next few years.
What is the difference between rural tourism from the usual? Agrotourists spend their leisure time not in campsites in the woods and not hiking in the mountains, but in the countryside with all the charms of rural life. This type of recreation attracts residents of large cities who have never been to a village before.
Tourists are located in the countryside, where there is no industry and no multi-storey buildings. The agency rents the so-called guest houses, rooms or individual floors with all the necessary furniture, dishes, linens, towels and other things necessary in the household. You can rent a room or a house in the village for a period from two days (weekend tour) to several months (for example, for the whole summer). Vacationers enjoy the closeness to nature, fresh air and healthy, rustic food from organic products.
So, rural tourism is a new and promising direction that deserves attention. It would seem that it could be simpler: just choose any village in the region, arrange renting with local residents, place ads in newspapers and wait for calls from first customers. Nevertheless, as in any other business, there are pitfalls here.
Let’s start with the fact that “any village” is not suitable for agro-tourism. The tour participants expect from such a rest, above all, a calm and measured life in the idyllic outback, including clean air and silence, comfortable living conditions (since we will not forget that the main target audience of such tours are people who are used to the conveniences of city apartments ), homely atmosphere, reasonable prices, natural products and delicious food, getting pleasant impressions, a large selection of entertainment for children and adults.
Rural tourism infrastructure means good transport links between settlements, the availability of leisure facilities (cafes and taverns, a horse riding training center, tennis courts, saunas, hunting grounds, livestock farms, etc.) and all the necessary amenities in a rented house or building. Guests are accommodated (as they call tourists coming to rest in the village) in guest houses or in separate rooms, which ideally have a separate entrance, running water, a dry closet and at least a minimal set of household appliances.
As entertainment, they are invited to a beach holiday on the river bank, fishing, hunting, picking up mushrooms and berries, visiting the bath, cycling and horseback riding, excursions to local attractions, visiting the farm, feeding the animals.
Unfortunately, many Russian villages and villages do not meet these requirements. Obviously, in most cases, companies that organize agricultural tours cannot do without state support. Many representatives of the government have already realized the importance of such a direction in tourism and are making every effort to make their region attractive for lovers of rural recreation.
The development of agrotourism business goes in two directions – the development of a network of tour operators who work in the field of domestic tourism, search for clients and solve all organizational issues, as well as the creation of guest houses in villages and villages where vacationers stop. The owner of such a house registers his business activities with the tax inspectorate and receives the status of an individual entrepreneur, and then enters into an agreement for the accommodation of guests with one or several tour operators.
According to surveys that were conducted in Moscow, the Moscow suburbs and Ryazan, most residents of large cities, in addition to the capital, agree to pay from 500 to 1000 rubles per day for accommodation (including meals) in a wooden house with partial conveniences. Muscovites are willing to pay much more, but they also impose higher requirements on living conditions (ideally, a cottage with all the amenities, including modern appliances).
The overwhelming majority of respondents from the preferred types of recreation called hunting, fishing, and gastronomic tourism. At the same time, older people turned out to be more interested in visiting historical and cultural sights. The optimal period of residence and recreation in rural areas was 5-10 days. But no less were in demand and short weekend tours. Summer was mentioned as the preferred time for rest, and winter was in second place (mainly for the purpose of hunting and fishing). In the spring and autumn there is a decline in agro-tourism.Read More